Shipping & Handling Charges
All prints are very carefully packed and normally posted within the United Kingdom for less then £5 or to the USA for less than $15 dependent on size of the parcel. Each print will be accompanied by "Certificate of Antiquity" guaranteeing the prints to be over 100 years old. (Items over 100 years old are import tax exempt in the USA). Importation taxes and other costs vary by country and are the responsibility of the purchaser.
Purchase and Payment
If you wish to purchase any prints, or just enquire about an item, please eMail me by clicking on Print item number, or better still just phone David Tilleke. Secure Credit Card Payments through WORLDPAY, and Pounds Sterling Cheques,Money Orders.
Paypal is always a preferred payment option.
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Personal visits to my shop at 86 High Street Redbourn Hertfordshire AL3 7BD United Kingdom are always welcome.
UK Antique and collectors Directory
Please take a look at a small but select Directory of UK Dealers.
Antiques Tree Directory The Real Antiques and Collectors Directory
David Tilleke is also a FULLY QUALIFIED Auctioneer and General Valuer, and Fellow of the Institute of Auctioneers and Appraisers with 25 years Rostrum and Valuation experience.
He is an "approved" Valuer by Legal & General Insurance Company.
He was General Manager of an International Bond Street Fine Art Auctioneers . INSURANCE VALUATIONS at extremely Competitive Rates.
Explanation of Print Terminology.
Explanation of Terms and expressions used in The Antique Print Shop Web Site.
(Or the Rough guide to Prints on two sides of paper)
The process by which the printing surface or Matrix has been created.
An engraving tool or burin is used to remove thin v shaped furrows from a metal Shape. The ink is forced into these grooves with a roller.
Similar to an engraving, but using acid to remove the metal. A sheet of copper is covered with a wax film, and the image drawn through it with a needle. When dipped in acid, only the exposed lines will be bitten into (the rest of the plate being protected by the wax ). This tends to produce a more fluid, less hard-edged line than engraving. An 18th century variant is the soft ground etching, where the image is drawn on a sheet of paper laid over the wax. Under the pressure of the pencil the wax sticks to the underside of the paper, which is then peeled away, and the plate dipped in acid as before. The resulting images are a close approximation of the original drawing. Related in function and technique is the stipple engraving which uses a small hammer hear covered with tiny points to punch holes in the wax layer (or in some cases directly on the plate). Like soft ground etching, stipple engraving is used primarily to mimic drawings in chalk and pastel
Like etching, aquatint is an acid based process. Instead of wax, a layer of Bitumen dust is laid on a plate, which is then heated, causing the dust to adhere to the surface. When immersed, the acid attacks the copper around each grain, thereby creating a fine web of thin lines .The technique is most suited to imitating areas of tone, such as those found in water colour washes.
The image is scratched on the plate surface with a sharp needle. Depending on the force and angle used, fine, sharp pieces of metal are thrown up on either side of the line. This burr holds ink, as does the furrow created by the needle and, the result is a warm almost blurred line. Because burr wears quickly its presence can indicate an early impression.
A plate is roughened with a fine tooth tool known as a mezzotint rocker. When inked this surface prints a rich, velvety black. The image is created by smoothing (burnishing) areas to produce lighter tones. The process is unusual therefore in creating a white image from a black background.
The above five methods are collectively termed intaglio. I.e. the image is held in marks made into a printing surface. A characteristic of intaglio prints is the plate mark, and impressed mark around the image, caused by the plate and paper being forced together in the printing press.
The following which do not leave plate marks are termed "Relief" processes
A design is drawn on a wooden block, and the excess cut away. Often rather course in appearance and texture the process was refined in the 19th Century with the development of wood engraving. Here harder woods such as box and pear are cut across the end of the grain (whereas woodcuts are cut along the grain). The result is a cleaner finer image. In the 20th Century many artists returned to more open grained woods for artistic effect.
A linocut is the same process using a block or sheet of linoleum as the matrix.
A Chiaroscuro Woodcut is the result of two or more blocks printing in different colours, or more of different shades of the same colour. The above family of techniques in which the element of the design to be printed are left standing, while the surrounding areas are cut away is called a relief process.
This image is formed with a waxy crayon on a block of limestone or a zinc plate, the surface of which is wetted, and rolled up with ink. The ink adheres to the wax image, but not the dampened surface surrounding it. As the image lies on the surface and not in the grooves, little pressure is needed during printing. Hence no plate marks.
A tinted lithograph is the product of two or more stones building up an image by printing in different colours. (Chromolithographs introduced in the 1830's were a sophistication of this process).
This process used principally by the French for fashion and Genre reproductions in the early 20th Century uses stencils, whereby the image is created directly on the paper. Often used to replicate hand colouring. The above list is a small representation of the many, differing processes but are the principal methods used over the last five centuries.
The date identifies when the Matrix was produced, and generally speaking every process has "core" dates, Starting with wood cuts four hundred plus years ago right through to Pochoirs in the 1920s. e.g. steel engravings took over from copperplates effectively circa 1823 and by 1827 whole books were being illustrated by this method ( Shepherds Views of London and Edinburgh). However prints produced long after the matrix was created are known either as late impressions or re-strikes. It follows therefore that the printed date on an impression does not always tell the true date of publishing…When buying expensive prints therefore, always insist upon a certificate of Authenticity with a clear reference to date of publication!!
Hand Colour is a permanent bone of Contention. Many prints were coloured at the time of publication and old colour is easy to recognise by a trained eye, nevertheless modern colour , perhaps less desirable, can also be of extremely high quality. In fact old colour was often carried out by children or by production lines of Ladies (fashion plates), and for speed of production ten-plates and stencils were often used.